Saturday, August 25, 2007


This floating plant occurs in the water with stagnant or slow running water.

Vodokras sometimes completely cover the big issues, but more frequently in small groups with ryaskami. Maybe it is related to health ryasok role as vodokrasy sensitive to water pollution and live only in clean water. Lemna as to create a conducive environment for vodokrasam habitat.

Vodokras what its name and truly represents those many places water, which grows. Raskidyvayutsya his widely collected art sochno- green leaves. They are nearly circular, with great heart onto the base, very similar to the leaves Hévíz and clumps, but less than the last. Length of leaves up to seven centimetres wide, five centimetres. The upper side is smooth with wax bloom.

When at the same place together front, spatter - dock, duckweed and vodokrasy, it seems that all the same plant, but only its different generation. "

It describes vodokras Semenovich Viktor Zhdanov in the book "Akvariumnye plants." This book published in Moscow in 1973, and my advice to get to know so akvariumistam who will be seriously cultivation of aquatic plants.

Summer vodokras heavily doubled-Acoustics plant from all sides over the side shoots that give new plant kustiki which, in turn, provide shoots, etc. And very soon surface

aquarium completely covered by floating plants.

Vodokras very difficult to maintain the aquarium winter. By the fall vodokras gives many wintering in lukovok kidney. These bulbs pochki- fall to the bottom and remain there until spring. A spring (March-April) and discover how kidneys triggers a new plant with a beautiful name-vodokras.

Friday, January 5, 2007

Aquarium plants

The plants of different breadths and types of reservoirs have different «tastes» in part of temperature, luminosity and quality of water (inflexibilities and reactions of rN).From number plants rooted in soil, simpler those which succeeds to be reared from the small wreckages of stems-handles prigivayutsya than all.
Lyudvigiya — plant making to use popularity at the home amateurs-aquariums more than one hundred years. Bright green, with rounded listyami, it well overgrows in the magnificent bush branching out from any fragment prikopannogo in sand. Prefers the bright illumination. In this case lower parties of its foliage acquire a reddish tint. In nature is water-bog plant. Overgrowing, its overhead escapes achieve a surface of water and continue to grow out it, beautifully let through the edge of aquarium down. Optimum temperature of water for this plant — a 20—22 degree.Peristolistnik — yugnoamerikanskoe plant; loves light and clear water. Its long fragile! the stems covered by the peristimi fluffy nitevidni-j mi by listyami of tender-green color are very beautiful. Well grows at the 18—20°S temperature. Lees which has to be periodically shaken off osedaet on its tender foliage, or it follows to delete senescent muddy stems, rejuvenating a fast-growing plant.


Motherland of this plant — South America. Grows long stems and pair suprotivnimi listyami fan-shaped and melkorassechennimi. The most fluffy beautiful plants develop at the good lateral illumination. Kabomba fine looks at oneself at landing by thin kurtinami. At the insufficient overhead illumination the stems stretch at the rare location of listev upwards. Prefers soft water and temperature 20—24 °S. Ploho prigivaetsya in the hard ferrous water.Elodei. The aquariums have to run into three near types of these plants.
Elodeya canadian Its long thin and fragile stems are thickly covered by the oblong shallow leaves. Well grows in the cool water — at temperature about 10 “With, captivating shallow reservoirs. Therefor name it still aquatic plague. In the room teplovodnih aquariums prigivaetsya badly, perishes in the hard water, especially with the admixture of salts of iron.More befit for the room aquariums of elodeya toothed with the lengthened oblong chlorine leaves and form near to it — elodeya curly, also with extended, but with the curled leaves. These plants not bad grow in aquariums with the net, regularly updated water, at the room temperature.


the most widespread and simple plants. Their listya as rather narrow ribbons of emerald color are very decorative and besides not strongly shade the lateral illumination, that important for other plants. The aquariums conduct vallisnerii two kinds. One of them, by birth from South Europe, differs by direct and long (50—60 sm) listyami. In the aquariums of sufficient depth at the overhead illumination of vallisneriya sometimes flowers by the shallow flowerets. They are two kinds: womanish — as long tubes with bell on end on spiralevidnih stilts and masculine — trilobate, on the short legs. In the shallow aquariums these plants lose, because their lengthened listya, attaining a surface, lie along it down, blocking a skylight and hindering to superficial aeratsii, and such overage juveniles look not so beautifully.Therefore in the aquariums of middle depth other type of vallisnerii is preferable — by birth from America, with spiralevidnimi listyami which do not outgrow in length. Vallisneriya with the linear foliage well gets along also in the holodnovodnih aquariums, and at the room temperature. Vallisneriya with spiralevidnimi listyami is more heat-loving. Prefer that and other kind updated clear water of aquariums and badly carry a brackish environment.(or yaponika) differs by wide (2—2,5 sm) rifle-green listyami. In the low aquariums at the good overhead illumination forms wide lanceolate listya on the long narrow petioles. Its motherland — south of North America. Above water flowers — as brushes of small white colors with the yellow stamens. The plant planted in sand develops enough slowly, but gradually types growth, forming the powerful root system transforming a sandy pound in silty substrat. This not always appropriately in the ordinary decorative aquarium, but very well, if aquarium — pool in the winter garden. Strelolisti and ordinary vallisneriya more successful effloresce after original yarovizatsii or stage of rest, when the plants save at the temperature 10—14 °With during a few weeks.


(or strelolist) looks like on vallisneriyu, but its listya of sableobraznoy form and more dark tint. This water-bog plant can form a surface tier of foliage on the long petioles in the form of tip of arrows. It very decorates an aquarium, but this not always comfortably, because possibility to cover it by glass disappears.Izoetis (helioharis) — elegant plant, having low (15—20 sm) threadlike chlorine listya growing small bunches. Well grows on the sandy pound, in the light, systematic refreshed water. The sizes and grace of plant do it by decoration of foregrounds of aquarium. At the lateral illumination of izoetis overgrows toward podsvetki and forces systematic to thin out its kurtini. At the overhead illumination to make the upgrade of kurtini more comfortable, deleting senescent its parts. It is possible to limit excrescence of plant, mortgaging in sand of strip of glass or plastic.Amazon — teplovodnie plants, by birth from America. Them there are a few kinds different on sizes. In the aquariums of middle sizes appropriately to conduct a «midget» amazon — beautiful, rifle-green plant as small bushes — electric outlets with lanceolate listyami long about 15 sm, at the width of about 4 sm on the short handles. Other meeting at our aquariums the kind is very beautiful, but its bushes with listyami long about 40 sm at width 5— 6 sm are bulky for the aquariums of middle sizes. Better grow in the soft, slightly sour water at the temperature 22—28 °S. Pri good illumination lower parties of listev acquire a reddish tint. Lately the list of plants of this family broadens due to delivery and other kinds.


— family which more than fifty kinds from the countries of East Asia are included in. Among them meet both large plants appropriate only for landing on backgrounds in the large aquariums, and shallow (12—15 sm) kinds suitable even for the small capacities. Kriptokarini differ by variety not only specific forms, but also by the considerable intraspecific changeability. So, comparatively not large kriptokarina Nevillya is known as shirokolistvennoe and as an uzkolistvennoe plant. Kriptokarini with lanceolate listyami have vague similarity with amazon, but petioles of their listev longer, the color is olive-green, and lower party of foliage russetAll kriptokarini are heat-loving. Optimum temperature for them 24—28 “With. Most beautiful the plants grow at the good, mainly overhead illumination. But at the same time they tenevinoslivi, grow in neutral or to the slabokisloy environment at the insignificant or middle inflexibility of water.For these plants brackish and alkaline (rN over 7,5) water is ruinous.Aponegeton — tender-green plant with long lanceolate listyami on the long petioles. Such listya develop at the lateral illumination and at the young plants. The floating leaves of more dense structure with the lustrous surface appear at the overhead illumination. Unlike the visheopisannih kinds the young plants appear not on the prikornevih sprouts, but on the long pointers in the layer of water. The tuber from which upwards listya of young aponegetona germinate appears on the end of pointer, and the counterfoils stretch downward. At the good terms a new pointer grows from this plant, and so appears whole chainlet of young plants. As far as their maturing of pointer become more fragile, and seat an underwood in the sandy soil. The plants better prigivayutsya in the teplovodnih aquariums (24—26 °With), at the soft, dissipated illumination in the old water with neutral or by the slabokisloy reaction.The aquariums-muscovites conduct an aquatic fern (tseratopteris) from a 1948 year. From the sole small small bush in the short space it was got the great number of the plants winning popularity at amateurs to conduct fishes thanks to its beauty and unpretentiousness. Plants with the chlorine fretted leaves achieving in length about 20 sm, propagates oneself by buds which appear in the great number on the ends of listev and then develop in the young plants. These daughter's small bushes, moving away from the maternal bush, emerge to the surface and can grow and propagate oneself, not fastened in soil. But the plants planted in sand at the overhead illumination develop much more magnificent. Fern — teplovodnoe plant, demanding to composition of water, but better grows in aquariums, where regularly update water.Senescent small bushes growing in soil, expediently systematic to replace by youths which on the first stage of development, not still obrosshie by the numerous daughters' rastenitsami, much more beautiful. — plant with the thin threadlike stems of chlorine color from the mutovkami narrow (1 — 1,5 mm) leaves long the no more than centimetre. The long stems of gidrilli branching out overgrow in the layer of water, not fastened in soil. Gidrilla is not demanding to the temperature and inflexibility of water. Although better grows in the updated environment. Any fragment of gidrilli, at the sufficient illumination, soon overgrows, captivating all free space. The anxiety of aquarium is taken to deleting of superfluous senescent lashes of gidrilli mainly.Along with the small bushes of young fern freely floating at surface this plant is special comfortably in aquariums with the fishes inclined to dig in soil, and also for the small capacities used for transplanting of fries or as spawning-grounds.(fontinalis) — inhabitant of cold running waters of middle bar of our motherland. Its thin stems thickly covered by the shallow leaves tuft, by fastened «koreshkami»-rizoidami to the stony bottom. Well prigivaetsya in the aquariums unwarmed up at the sufficient illumination and slightly by the sour or neutral reaction of water. In such terms overgrows, forming thickets of chlorine color. Declines in health in the warm, muddy water and at the alkaline reaction of environment.This plant badly prigivaetsya in aquariums with the warm water and exotic inhabitants, but very comfortably as substrata for ikrometaniya of fishes and as refuge for fries at breeding of the kinds inclined to the cannibalism.

Aquarium plants

The aquarium plants convert a room reservoir into the original submarine garden, decorate it not less fishes and other inhabitants. Growing of aquarium plants so enthralling, as well as room floriculture.
Without them in the water environment the biological equilibrium can not be set; vegetation enriches water by oxygen, serves by shelter for fries and food for fishes, shellfishes and mikroflori. Naturally, that before to place in aquarium fishes and other living creatures, it is necessary to crop it with plants.In aquariums conduct mainly teplovodnie exotic plants of small sizes. They well grow during all year, while experience most plants of our reservoirs the winter in the oppressed state or die off in autumn, in spring to regenerate from seeds, tubers or rhizomes.Aquarium most plants well overgrow from handles-wreckages. Simply prikapivayut them in soil with the sheet bosoms from which soon the counterfoils germinate. So conduct peristolistniki, lyudvigiyu, kabombu, bakopuand row of other plants. Vallisnerii, marsilii. izoetes, different kinds amazon and plants similar to them propagate oneself by prikornevimi otvodkami — by sprouts, on the ends of which the young plants are formed.At aponegetonov young otvodki appear on the leaved pointers. And some plants rear, landing in soil pieces of rhizomes or tubers, for example, money-box yellow, which not bad grows in aquariums. On a new place best the young plants prigivayutsya of all. Therefore, buying them at the market, it is not needed to overpay a superfluous money for the luxurious large copies which in the process of adaptation at you at home, as a rule, decline in health and will in best case give beginning of young underwood.Before landing every plant it follows carefully to wash in pelvis with the net water of room temperature. Simultaneously it follows to delete all leaves and podgnivshie counterfoils dying off. The long counterfoils are needed to be shortened so that their length corresponded to the layer of soil.In most cases the plants seat directly in soil of aquariums. In pots it has to seat the plants wherein it is assumed to contain fishes inclined to the digging activity. For the pot culture appropriately than the plant of the single landing, clustering forms, more large and not formative prikornevih otvodkov, for example, lyudvigiya, aponegeton, yellow money-box and other. The pot landing of yellow money-box is appropriate also in order to limit the excessive growth and excrescence of rhizomes of this powerful plant undesirable in the room aquarium. For this purpose it is possible to use small kuvshinoobraznie, uzkogorlie pots. Planted there young plants taken by the early spring from the natural reservoirs, at the lateral illumination form beautiful electric outlets of submarine pale green leaves. Such, in essence, midget form of money-box it succeeded to save, artificially limiting growth of its root system by the small pot and cutting rhizomes germinating through its overhead edge.For the taking root of the again planted plants, settling of shallow particles of soil and forming of mikroflori of aquarium 7—10 days are necessary. By the index of the set equilibrium the disappearance of the lees arising up in the first days serves in «nature» of room reservoir. Only after this in aquarium it is possible to seat fishes and other animals.

Hasemaniya marginata

One of the most beautiful fishes of haratciny group.
Know it only not many aquariums. Possibly, and because young fishes are painted very modestly and have not a «commodity» kind. Centuries ago the author by chance acquired from ten the fries of unattractive serebristo-serogo color. On question about the name of these fishes the salesman uncertainly pronounced: «A sort of marginatusov». Was quite a bit to dig in directories, to specify the authentic name of my new nurse-children. This was complicated and that there is another fish, named nannostomus marginatus. About one and a half months passed, and my fishes, more faithful half from them, turning out males, were transformed. They began to sparkle by brilliance of pure gold, the dorsal and anal fins became red. These unusually mobile fishes on equal vied by brightness with the glorified neons and considerably excelled them by liveliness. The females looked some more modest, but also became naryadnee, painted in the color of the just cleaned table silver.
Since these fishes became one of best decorations of my aquarium economy. Small size (about 4 sm), they, not in example to its glorified relatives, are less choosy its maintenance and breeding. Though and for spawning soft, slightly sour water with the temperature 25—26 is necessary to them °S. Nerestyatsya they at depth about 1 sm in the small tselnosteklyannih vessels. Put a caviar aside on plants with the shallow foliage, for example on miriofillum. The development of caviar and larvae passes, as at majority of haratsinovih. The producers eat a caviar up, and after ikrometaniya of them it follows to transplant. With other kinds these peaceful fishes get along well, but in the separate aquarium the flock of marginatusov looks especially interesting.

Flashlight (hemigrammus otselifer)

Fish which the home aquariums got in a 1959 year only, when tetra background of rio were saved at not many inveterate amateurs only, and their denominative name, as well as fishes, many simply did not know. If the background of rio rozoveet on to light like the Chinese coloured flashlight, at hemigrammusa, as a little flashlight, the mirror spot at foundation of tail probleskivaet. The same, but the not so eye-catching «flashlights» are located on the forehand of body after branchiaes and above eyes. On form body the flashlight is similar with the previous kind — oval, compressed from sides, long 4—5 sm, is painted by the silvery-greenish color, with the dark bar on the tail stem, broadening by the end. The tender elegant look of this uzkoteloy fish by the light (kontragur) passing through it is semilucent, so that the air-bladder is translucent.Fishes are able to propagate oneself in the defended plumbing water, on condition of slabokisloy or neutral its reaction. Temperature of the maintenance 22— 24 °With, spawning — 26—27 “With. There can be a spawning-ground also a framework aquarium. Fishes in kurtinah of melkolistvennih plants spawn. Partly it remains on them the part falls on bottom. The producers do not eat a caviar up. There is no necessity in shading of spawning-ground. On spawning better to seat two males at one female.

The Tetra-fon-rio (flashlight)

Small, about 4 sm fish with oval, uploshennim from sides by body. Is led in reservoirs near Rio-de-Ganeyro.
This was one of the first haratsinovih fishes divorced by our aquariums still at the beginning of the thirtieth years. The forehand of body is silvery-rose with three dark transversal bars. Back-end, the dorsal, tail and anal fins are red, last at male — with the dark edging. At good samochuvstvii fishes are painted by the saturated rose-red tones as though luminous by the falling light. For what and they got its Russian name. But at the drop in the temperature of water, starvation and even at the fright of paint instantly fade. They are not so demanding to quality of water, as majority and sorodichey, however better feel and more successful spawn in the soft water at the neutral reaction Temperature of the maintenance 20—24 °With, spawning -26—28 “With. It is spawned in kurtinah of melkolistvennih plants which it hangs on, as though glued. The development of ikrinok takes place about days. The larval stage flows 3—4 days. On its ending the fries do not float in the layer of water, but as though creep on the leaves of plants and bottom of spawning-ground in search of mikrokorma. Prefer water defended, transparent, saturated by oxygen due to the vital functions of plants at good their illumination.


One of not many types of the haratsinovih fishes simple and simple in breeding. The high, compressed from sides body of these small (about 5 sm) fishes gives them the known likeness with youths of skalyariyami. The young individuals at which greater part of body are most interesting, the dorsal and anal fins are almost black, at the adult individuals serebristo-seroe body with two dark transversal bars. Growing, fishes get clear up, becoming less attractive. Along with the initial form is present and aquarium breed of vualevih ternetsiy with lengthened plavnikami. Polovozrelimi these fishes become about eight months. Life-span fishes about 4 years. For breeding preferably to use young individuals. Males, as a rule, are painted more dark. However above all difference — form of body, which at females more rounded in area of stomach.For spawning it is possible to use and framework aquariums with the defended plumbing water, with the 26—28°S temperature. Fishes eat up a caviar, what the bottom of spawning-ground must be closed in order to avoid by the layer of melkolistvennih plants or closed by net, failed which the caviar becomes through inaccessible for fishes. Light does not interfere with development of caviar and larvae, which passes in the terms general for the haratsinovih fishes. For the receipt of posterity it is possible to use also the transplanted pairs, and flocks of ternetsiy in aquariums by capacity no less than two buckets with the protective net for the rescue of caviar.The last years ternetsiy began to conduct less. They were «pressed» by the more bright and good-looking representatives of this group. But for the beginning aquarium the acquaintance with these fishes gives invaluable experience of their breeding and touch to the miracle of creation of a new life.

Thayeria boehlkei

Some larger previous (length about 6 sm). Slender, progonistaya fish of silvery color with the wide black bar along all body, the end of which goes down downward, going on the lower blade of tail plavnika.

For this original decoration the fish got the in the everyday use name of «kocheregka». Males from females differ by the more slender, smart addition. Terms of maintenance and breeding — general for haratsinovih, but these fishes, inhabitants of light clear waters, need the more spacious apartments for maintenance and spawning with the weekly partial substitution of soft water with the neutral reaction. A sharp change of its composition is to disastrous for these fishes. The author had sorrowful experience, when, getting at acquaintance notoriously healthy pair fishes, let out them in the general aquarium with neons and gratsilisami. Whereupon fishes almost at once perished. Other party of the fishes taken from the same economy, I trained to water of its aquarium gradually, during a few hours razbavlyaya by it water brought in bank together with oblikvami. Whereupon fishes successfully prigilis on a new place.


Beautiful fish opened only at the beginning of the thirtieth years in the river Amazonki basin. A few years it did not succeed to be divorced to the European aquariums, because it was not known, what terms these fishes live in and propagate oneself on its motherland. And place, where this beautiful fish was opened and from where brought it in Europe, some time made, to keep secret a monopoly on their hunting and delivery. Tell, that the accidental opening of this remarkable fish in remote parts of amazonian selvi helped to the adventurer being in need in poverty if not to get rich, but, at all events, to become on feet.
Not at once became known, that at itself on the motherland of fish live in the small rivers slowly current in the dusk of tropical forest. Under its pologom always not enough light, silty soil is dark, and the surface of water is cluttered up by the foliage falling off. The necessity of shading of spawning-grounds of neons for the normal development of caviar and larvae is exactly fated to these. The second provision of their maintenance — quality of water in the places of the natural dwelling of neons. The natural reservoirs lie on the silty peaty soils and accordingly have slightly a sourish reaction at the almost complete absence of soluble mineral matters. And they are filled up by threads of rain-water, I.e. almost distilled. By shove to beginning of spawning serves not only at neons, but also at the tropical most fishes upgrade of waters by the rain threads.
Not at once the aquariums knew all this. Still later they learned to create the required terms for these choosy nurse-children. During the row of years success in breeding of these wonderful and in that pore of very dear fishes accompanied to the aquariums of the small German small town supplying with these fishes in the entire countries of Europe. The «secret» of the so successful breeding of them consisted in composition local water which were made to use by habitants and including lucky aquariums. And in our country the neons are left in a 1955 year, when them learned to conduct aquariums of many countries.
For spawning of neons, as well as other haratsinovih is used by the tselnosteklyannie aquariums. Forasmuch as these fishes are very sensible even to the insignificant change of composition of water due to the admixtures of salts of metals or chemical matters, can get in the water contiguous with framework and aquarium putty. Pour water of the proper quality by layer about 10 see Vidergivayut the producers of different chaffs before spawning separately during 10 days. Place them in spawning-ground by pairs from evening, shading it from every quarter so that the dissipated light penetrated only from above by the narrow bar. Spawning takes place usually at dawn, whereupon transplant the producers. The caviar develops in the flow of days in darkness at the spawning 22—24°S temperature. The larvae hang on the walls of vessel and melkolistvennih plants and stay still to rassasivaniya of geltochnogo bubble about 4 days. Then they begin to float and feed on infusoria, kolovratkami or egg yolk. Preferably to feed them with the living mikrokormom in the conditions of the black-out aquarium examined with x-rays by the bar of dim light. The fries grow quickly and become polovozrelimi approximately for a 4 month. Besides the pair breeding landing is practiced on spawning of group of neons from 10—12 fishes in spawning-ground by capacity about 20 litres and more at the depth of aquatic post 15—20 see
In aquariums conduct neons of two kinds: neon and red neon. First measuring about 3,5 sm, male it a bit more shallow than female, is painted gay in colours by the bright dark blue-green bar along all body, under which from pectoral plavnikov to the tail lower its part reddens by the so bright «neon» light. Red neon hardly larger and still naryadnee, because at it bright red all lower part. By the falling even insignificant light the fishes glitter to ruby and by the overflowing emerald and turquoise paints, like jewels. And in the dusk of tropical reservoirs such colouring secures to these covey fishes the permanent visual contact with relatives.

Minor and serpasi

Also shirokotelie, uploshennie from sides fishes pressing visheopisannih fishes in hearts and aquariums of amateurs thanks to the more intensive colouring of body and plavnikov.
That and other kind are painted in the red color of tender rozoveyushih tones with red plavnikami, except for spinal, which has a black with the white mount. The representatives of both kinds are similar between itself. Serpasov distinguishes only dark transversal bar on the forehand of body. Both kind easily cross between itself, and to the modern aquariums in most cases it has to have business with the hybrid fishes. Albinos are the minor keys got Moscow amateurs in the middle of fiftieth years, pinky, semilucent fishes with the same plavnikami — are very beautiful. But crossing of them with fishes of initial forms diminishes intensity of the natural colouring at posterity.Terms of maintenance and breeding — general for haratsinovih. The spawning-ground must be darkened.